Thousands of learners across South Africa are being excluded from schools as a result of their failure to provide their schools with identity numbers, passports or permits. This follows the announcement by various provincial departments of education that funding transfers to schools for the Norms and Standards, post provisioning allocation and National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP) would be based only on learner numbers where valid South African identity, passport and permit numbers have been captured on the South African Schools Administration & Management System (SASAMS). This means that undocumented South African learners, as well as foreign learners, will no longer receive any education funding from government.
Schools that are most affected by this decision are the no-fee schools that are entirely dependent on state funding. These are the poorest schools and comprise around 60% of all schools in the country. The funding transfers are used by the schools to provide essential resources such as textbooks, stationery, as well as daily meals. Funding is also provided to pay for essential maintenance and municipal services. The decision also impacts on the provision of teachers to schools, as teacher posts are only allocated to those learners with valid identity numbers, passports and permits (as opposed to the number of children actually present in classrooms).
In the past, schools were funded based on actual numbers of learners, regardless of whether they had valid identity documents, passports and permit numbers. The SASAMS was introduced in 2013 and is a database that (theoretically) contains all the personal and academic information of learners attending public schools in South Africa. The SASAMS was introduced by the Department of Basic Education in an attempt to improve the accuracy of its resource distribution and prevent the problem of “ghost learners”. This is the phenomenon where schools request funding for more learners than are present in the school and then embezzle the additional funding. By only providing funding for learners with valid identity numbers, passport, or permit numbers the Department of Basic Education is better able to combat this fraudulent conduct. The decision has had unconstitutional consequences.
The decision to exclude undocumented learners from funding was announced in March 2016 to all schools in the Eastern Cape. Similarly, schools in KwaZulu-Natal were informed of the decision on 24 March 2017. On Friday, 26 May 2017, the Legal Resources Centre, on behalf of the Centre for Child Law and the School Governing Body of Phakamisa High School in the Eastern Cape, launched an application in the Grahamstown High Court to declare the decision of the Eastern Cape Department of Education (ECDOE) unconstitutional.
The application argues that, by withdrawing funding from undocumented learners, the ECDOE is violating the learners’ constitutional right to basic education, particularly when it is read in conjunction with the learners’ rights to dignity (and the right to equality and non-discrimination).
The funding failure is also a gross violation of the learners’ constitutional rights to basic nutrition (section 28) and to have access to sufficient food (section 27). Furthermore, the decision to exclude learners without identity number, passports or permits is not in the best interests of the child and violates section 28(2) of the Constitution.
Many schools have been negatively affected by this decision. Phakamisa High School, the second applicant in the case, has 99 learners that were excluded from funding for the 2017/2018 financial year. The school has been forced to use funding from their maintenance budget to supplement the shortfall in their NSNP budget, while simultaneously reducing the food portions for all the learners in the school. Many other schools have simply decided to exclude undocumented learners or refuse them admission to the school.
It is usually the poorest and most vulnerable learners that fail to obtain their identity documents. This is a problem that disproportionately affects poor black learners living in rural areas of the country where access to resources are scarce and children are raised by grandparents or other extended family members. Often parents or guardians fail to take the necessary steps to register the birth of a child due to a lack of access to an office of the Department of Home Affairs, the parents not being in possession of the necessary documents to have the birth registered, or as a direct result of migrant labour.
The application seeks to have the decision by the ECDOE set aside and for the Department to revise teacher post establishments and funding in line with actual numbers of learners in schools, regardless of their registration status. The LRC hopes to set a precedent that can be extended to other provinces where similar measures have been announced.
Cecile van Schalkwyk – 2017 Bertha Fellow
The Annual Bertha Convening is supported by the Bertha Foundation. We would like to thank them for their support of the next generation of young human rights lawyers. Read more about the Bertha Foundation and Bertha Fellows here: http://berthafoundation.org/